Franz Joseph Haydn, a quintessential figure in classical music, earned the moniker “Father of the Symphony” by crafting 104 symphonies, transforming what was once the opera overture into standalone orchestral masterpieces. His role as Kapellmeister for the affluent Esterházy family laid the groundwork for his prolific output in the genre. As his reputation soared, other commissions came his way, leading to the creation of the Paris and London sets. Haydn’s inventive spirit brought about the establishment of the four-movement symphony structure, which endured for more than a century, setting a precedent for future classical composers.
Haydn’s ability to marry the demands of his patrons with his creative aspirations cemented his legacy as an Austrian composer whose influence stretched across Europe. Here’s our pick of the best Haydn symphonies.
- Symphony No. 45 in F sharp minor, “Farewell”
- Symphony No. 103 in E flat major, “The Drumroll”
- Symphony No. 83 in G minor, “The Hen”
- Symphony No. 73 in D major, “Chasse”
- Symphony No. 94 in G major, “Surprise”
- Symphony No. 88 in G major
- Symphony No.6 in D major, “Le Matin”
- Symphony No. 22 in E flat major, “The Philosopher”
- Symphony No. 90 in C major
- Symphony No. 52 in C minor
Symphony No. 45 in F sharp minor, “Farewell”
Distinctive for its expressive depth and innovative structure, Symphony No. 45 reflects a narrative that extends beyond mere musical experimentation. Haydn weaves a tale of subtle protest and longing through the symphony’s four movements, each transitioning from an upbeat vivacity to an emotive adagio.
Crafted during Haydn’s tenure at the Esterházy court, the symphony premiered in 1772, a period when Haydn encountered the tension between his obligations and his musicians’ desire to return home to their families. The composition culminates in a striking departure of musicians during the final adagio, leaving only two violinists to finish the piece. This act of staged diminuendo served as a gentle yet unmistakable message to the Prince, hinting at the musicians’ wish to leave. Haydn’s ability to balance musical brilliance with a symbol of collective sentiment is part of what solidifies the Farewell Symphony’s place among his finest works.
By intertwining a personal story with the structure of a symphony, Haydn pioneered a form of musical storytelling that would resonate with audiences and influence future composers.
Symphony No. 103 in E flat major, “The Drumroll”
Joseph Haydn’s Symphony in E flat major, popularly known as “The Drumroll”, stands out as a remarkable specimen of the classical symphony. Attributed with the distinction of being Haydn’s penultimate symphony, it premiered to an enthusiastic London audience in 1795. The name “The Drumroll” traces its origin to the suspenseful timpani roll that famously opens the piece, setting a dramatic stage for the ensuing movements.
The work progresses through a traditional four-movement structure, showcasing Haydn’s ingenuity and command over orchestral textures. Its first movement, Adagio – Allegro con spirito, is remarkable for its slow introduction, followed by the vigorous main theme. The following Andante più tosto Allegretto, a set of double variations, is admirable for its thematic development and inventive orchestration, which includes the striking use of wind instruments.
The minuet and trio, marked as Menuetto e Trio: Moderato, embody the dance-like character intrinsic to many of Haydn’s symphonies. True to form, the rhythm is precise, and the melodies engaging. The minuet tiptoes between the refined and the robust, with the trio providing a contrasting lightness.
Completing the symphony is the Finale: Allegro con spirito, a fast-paced movement that concludes the piece on a note of rhythmic vitality and cheerful brilliance. Haydn’s meticulous attention to detail manifests in the symphony’s closing bars – an invigorating ending that encapsulates the work’s spirit.
Symphony No. 83 in G minor, “The Hen”
The composer’s penchant for infusing a sense of character and wit into his works is particularly evident in this piece. Notably, the second movement, which is the namesake of the moniker “The Hen,” showcases playful staccato notes that mimic the pecking motion of a hen. Its creativity lies not just in melodic novelty but also in the clever exploitation of orchestral colors and dynamics.
The work features the typical four-movement structure and is crafted in a way that exemplifies Haydn’s mature style. Through the development of thematic material and orchestral dialogue, the symphony provides a canvas where the interplay between strings and winds creates a rich tapestry of sound. It maintains a robust presence in the classical repertoire, revered for its humor and compositional sophistication.
Though it might not be as celebrated as some of Haydn’s other great symphonies, this work is a testament to Haydn’s ingenuity. Listeners appreciate its charm and the technical mastery of the composer, noting that each movement brings a fresh experience while holding to the cohesive genius of Haydn’s symphonic form.
Symphony No. 73 in D major, “Chasse”
“La Chasse” (“The Hunt”) is among the composer’s most celebrated works. It is admired for its vivid representation of the hunting call, interwoven elegantly through the use of horns that resound throughout the piece. The robust and lively nature of the first movement immediately encapsulates the listener, transporting them to the heart of an 18th-century chase. Its Presto finale, brimming with dynamism, reflects the spirited energy of the hunt with swift, vivacious rhythms that make it stand out from Haydn’s extensive symphonic repertoire.
The second movement offers a stark contrast through its gentle, lyrical melodies that provide a peaceful interlude before the ensuing movements. Here, the strings notably express a sense of serene beauty, displaying Haydn’s mastery of musical storytelling. The minuet that follows adheres to a more traditional structure yet retains a character unmistakably linked to the hunting theme, preparing the ground for what is to follow.
The composition, recognizably innovative for its time, showcases Haydn’s ingenuity in merging the popular motifs of the day with his unique compositional voice. His work not only set the stage for successive symphonic writing but also cemented his place as a pivotal figure of the classical music canon. Thus, “The Hunt” remains a quintessential piece that captures the essence of Haydn’s symphonic prowess.
Symphony No. 94 in G major, “Surprise”
Haydn’s expertise in manipulating classical form and expectation is evident throughout Symphony No. 94. The symphony was ingeniously designed to engage audiences of the time by incorporating unexpected elements, such as the dramatic fortissimo chord at the onset of the otherwise serene second movement, that interrupts the flow, shattering the tranquility like a thunderclap on a clear day. This stroke of genius not only gave the symphony its nickname but also cemented it as a favorite in the repertoire.
As is characteristic of Haydn’s work, the orchestration in the Symphony is clear and precise, using the string section’s dynamic range and the contrasting colors of the woodwinds. The overall structure adheres to the traditional four-movement layout, each segment establishing its distinct temperament while contributing to a cohesive whole.
The composition’s charm lies in its ability to seamlessly weave a playful, light-hearted wit with technical mastery.
Symphony No. 88 in G major
Symphony No. 88 balances melodic grace with structural precision. Its four movements, each with its unique character, coalesce into a cohesive whole that exemplifies Haydn’s musical prowess. The first movement, “Adagio-Allegro,” lays the groundwork with an elegant, slow introduction, leading into a lively and robust “Allegro.” The second movement, “Largo,” is renowned for its lyrical beauty and expansive melodies that create an intimate atmosphere. In stark contrast, the “Menuetto: Allegretto” offers a sprightly, dance-like third movement that embodies the spirited essence of the era’s courtly dances. The “Finale: Allegro con spirito” concludes the symphony with exhilarating and unbridled joy.
Haydn’s Symphony in G Major showcases the composer’s innovative use of the orchestra. When performed, the intricate interplay between strings, woodwinds, and brass creates a rich tapestry of sound that captivates the listener. The symphony is a beloved piece for many classical music enthusiasts and remains a staple in the repertoires of orchestras worldwide.
Symphony No.6 in D major, “Le Matin”
The symphony, often referred to as “Le Matin” (or “Morning”) earns its nickname from the evocative representation of a sunrise in the opening movement, which is a testament to Haydn’s innovative approach to musical storytelling. The symphony is structured traditionally, with four movements adhering to the classical symphonic form. The vibrant first movement symbolizes the break of dawn, followed by a slow second movement that captures morning’s tranquility. The third movement brings a bit of spirited momentum, reminiscent of daytime activity. At the same time, the finale is lively, potentially evoking the image of nature at its most dynamic.
The piece is widely appreciated for its lyrical melodies and the fine balance achieved between soloistic and ensemble passages, painting a vivid soundscape as delightful as it is impressive to both the casual listener and the classical connoisseur alike.
It is no surprise that the “Morning” Symphony is often listed among Haydn’s most outstanding achievements. Its popularity is enduring, garnering admiration for its craftsmanship and its ability to convey the essence of morning through music.
Symphony No. 22 in E flat major, “The Philosopher”
“The Philosopher” is set apart by its prominent use of French horns paired with an English horn to produce a deeply resonant and introspective sound. The inclusion of these instruments lends a somber and thoughtful tone to the piece, with the French horns introducing a slow, methodical Adagio that serves as the symphony’s unconventional first movement.
This opening is followed by a vivacious Presto, contrasting sharply with the meditative Adagio. Haydn’s characteristic wit is evident as he juxtaposes the thoughtfulness of the philosopher with the energy and brightness of this rapid second movement. The third movement, a minuet and trio, maintains the symphony’s classical structure, while the finale, a spirited Allegro, wraps up the work with a lively conclusion.
Haydn’s work on “The Philosopher” showcases his mastery in balancing contrasting musical ideas while exploring the depth of human introspection through sound. The symphony not only adds to the rich tapestry of Haydn’s contributions but also reflects the intellectual curiosity of the Enlightenment era in which he lived.
Symphony No. 90 in C major
Symphony No. 90 in C major showcases Haydn’s adeptness in fusing traditional symphonic structure with innovation, resulting in music that is both engaging and surprising.
One can appreciate the deftness with which Haydn employs the instruments, allowing each orchestra section to converse and contrast with the others. The strings carry much of the melodic weight, while the wind instruments add color and depth to the overall texture. Haydn’s skillful use of dynamics and shifts in tempo contributes to the symphony’s dramatic tension and release.
The symphony’s movements encapsulate a journey of emotional breadth, from the energetic and spirited opening to the sublimely crafted andante. The following minuet exudes graceful dance-like characteristics, and the final movement culminates in a spirited and uplifting conclusion. This particular symphony exemplifies why Haydn is frequently called “The Father of the Symphony,” with its structural coherence, melodic richness, and innovative qualities.
Symphony No. 52 in C minor
Franz Joseph Haydn’s Symphony No. 52 in C minor stands out significantly in the classical music canon. Composed during the prolific Esterházy period, it exemplifies Haydn’s adept skill in transforming the traditional symphonic form. It’s characterized by its starkly emotional and dramatic tone which was not typical for Haydn’s often more lighthearted compositions.
The work is structured in four movements, each with their own distinct mood and technique. The opening movement is driven by a sense of urgency and unease, showcasing Haydn’s talent for creating powerful and compelling rhythmic motifs. The second movement shifts towards a more introspective and delicate character, demonstrating Haydn’s versatility. A lively menuet serves as the third movement, and the symphony concludes with a vigorous and intricate finale.
One notable characteristic is the use of a minor key, which was less common in Haydn’s symphonies, giving the piece an edge of intensity not frequently heard in his oeuvre. This symphony, while not as widely recognized as some others, holds a distinct place in Haydn’s body of work due to its emotional depth and masterful composition.
The music of Haydn has influenced generations and remains an integral part of symphonic repertoire. His Symphony in C minor, through its expressiveness and complexity, contributes to this enduring legacy. It serves not just as an example of Haydn’s musical innovation, but also as a milestone in the evolution of the classical symphony.