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Ultimate Guide: How To Write A Song

Ever thought about writing a song?

"I haven't a clue" I hear you say. "I don't know how to read or write music for a start"

Doesn't matter at all. Some of the best musicians haven't a clue how to read or write music either.

The closest Keith Richards ever got to a quaver was the bag of crisps he munched during breaks [for the US audience: crisps = chips 🙂 ]

This article will show you how to write a song in 8 simple, idiot-proof steps.

But first, let's get some expert advice from some of those greats who have written the soundtrack to a generation, or skip straight to the 8 step process below.

Inspiring stuff, isn't it. By his own admission, he's failed and been laughed at many times throughout his career. And you know what? He doesn't care!

His advice in a nutshell is this:

Trust yourself and accept failure as part of the creative process. This will help you overcome your fears and realise that no-one else matters when you're songwriting.

He says you must be ready for the moment when inspiration takes over- "Grab it and keep it!"

You must be ready for the moment when inspiration takes over- "Grab it and keep it!" - Neil Young

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  • Key Take Out: You could jot down your idea on a piece of paper, or you might want to record a basic version on your guitar or piano if it’s nearby. But you have to get that elusive moment down somewhere, because it might never come back if you don't.

Paul McCartney's "Scrambled Eggs"- The Story of Yesterday

Some songwriters sing nonsense over a melody, to get an idea of how the lyrics and music could work together.

Paul McCartney composed the entire melody of “Yesterday” in a dream. He got up, ran to a piano and played the tune to avoid forgetting it.

The words that we are now so familiar with came later. McCartney started off with:

"Scrambled eggs / Oh my baby how I love your legs / Not as much as I love scrambled eggs!"

Paul McCartney

I remember mulling over the tune 'Yesterday', and suddenly getting these little one-word openings to the verse. I started to develop the idea ... da-da da, yes-ter-day, sud-den-ly, fun-il-ly, mer-il-ly and Yes-ter-day, that's good. All my troubles seemed so far away. It's easy to rhyme those a's: say, nay, today, away, play, stay, there's a lot of rhymes and those fall in quite easily, so I gradually pieced it together from that journey. Sud-den-ly, and 'b' again, another easy rhyme: e, me, tree, flea, we, and I had the basis of it."

  • Key Take Out: Don't be afraid to make a fool of yourself. This isn't brain surgery, it's writing a song. Have fun, mess about, see what works, don't take yourself too seriously!

Elton John "I can write a melody to anything"

The other way round can work too.

Elton John became famous by writing melodies to the lyrics of Bernie Taupin.

In this video, he shows us how to write a song from almost any lyrics. Whether Elton’s your cup of tea or not, you are guaranteed to find yourself smiling at his ingenuity.

  • Key Take Out: You have to be a genius to write a good song, right? Wrong. Most successful songwriters laugh at this suggestion! “Anyone can write songs” claims Paul McCartney, while Elton John points to the hours he spends “fiddling around” with chords until he “stumbles on something by accident”. Modesty apart, the message to budding songwriters is clear: don’t be scared to have a go, but be prepared to put the hours in.

Slash "Play with other musicians and you'll improve as a songwriter"

Musicians don't always agree about where inspiration comes from. 

Slash says that having recording apparatus handy is "essential", but he finds very little comes to him whilst on his own in a room with his guitar.

Creativity only happens for him when he's jamming with other musicians. You might be surprised at how much practice is behind those “spontaneous moments” he has on stage. His aim is "putting notes together that have some point”, a telltale sign that he’s a fan of scales, melody and putting a shift in when he picks up his guitar.

  • Key Take Out: Let an idea mellow instead of “overdoing it” - leave one idea and go on to the next one, to avoid frustration. Any technical tips? “It helps to have the fretboard in your head!”

Bruce Springsteen: "If one plus one equals two, you've failed"

Bruce Springsteen says songwriting is about looking for that bit extra that makes what you create authentic. You need “to have something bothering you, to be desperate!”

But I'm still not sure how to write a song. How can I go about looking for that life and breath, real authentic thing - Bruce Springsteen

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Stuart Coles: "It’s the mood of a song as much as anything"

London based musician Stuart Coles, who plays with folk-pop group Colour House, is one of the UK's most gifted songwriters. He shares his fascinating insights about songwriting below...

Songwriting is a fascinating thing because it's immensely personal, everyone does it differently and there aren’t really any hard and fast rules.

I’ve learnt that you can’t force it (Steven Tyler said ‘song writing is a bitch –and then it has puppies’) - sometimes it just comes and you have to be ready.

For me it’s the mood of a song as much as anything. But if you get the right phrase/word, chord progression (and if lucky) – a melodic hook all at the same time – you’re flying. Some songs take me months and years to shape –some just come in minutes.

The Only Way (listen below) was written in response to seeing terrible images of children fleeing the war in Syria & thinking about my newly born son. 

Stuart Coles Songwriter and Musician

What are the best techniques for songwriting? 

We’ve seen six very different artists in terms of style, but it's no coincidence that they all talk about roughly the same things. Much as we admire the talent of all six, none of them declares himself as a genius.

They all talk about being ready for the moment creative energy starts to run through your veins. They respect the moment and all agree a songwriter has to pay heed and get their ideas down.

Ok, taking all of this onboard and summarizing: I trust myself, I'm ready, I can sing nonsense over a melody and I reckon I can come up with a melody for a lyric. I can sit in my room on my own, or I can jam with other musicians. I’m desperate to create something.

It's time for the 8 steps...

How to write a song: an 8 step process

The following eight steps will help you get to grips with all the things you need to consider when you make a song. 

Step one starts with the basics around chord and scales, with a mini case study of how chords and scales fit together in The Beatles' 'Can't Buy Me Love'. 

The subsequent lessons look at lyric writing, writing hooks and writing riffs.

Finally we look at song structure, song arrangement and the challenge of writing a song.

Let's get stuck in!

1. Choosing Chords

Chords are the foundation of any song. So let's look at which chords go together, how to make an informed choice about finding the right chords, and some great ways if you're stuck with an idea. 

2. How The Beatles Used Chords To Write "Can't Buy Me Love"

For our second step we look at how the chords to Can't Buy Me Love work together, breaking down each section of the song. This will help you understand how you can apply the same techniques in your own song writing.

3. How to Write Lyrics with “The Magic Method”

Step three addresses how to write song lyrics, one of the songwriters biggest challenges. We look at a proven technique called the 'magic method' inspired by the book 'A Technique For Producing Ideas' by James Webb Young. 

4. How to Write Catchy Hooks for Your Songs

A hook is a musical or lyrical phrase that's memorable, catchy and is the signature for the song. For example think about the song  'Satisfaction' that actually has three hooks - the guitar riff, the vocal and the chorus. So step four is about writing hooks. Dive right in 🙂

5. Writing Riffs from Chords

A riff can turn a lifeless song into something exciting. This step looks at how to write a great riff, and which chords to play underneath it.

6. Song Structure

Every song, however disjointed it may sound on the surface, follows a recognized song structure. So step 6 concerns the common structures used in popular music and how to choose one for your song.

7. How to Arrange your Songs

A few minor tweaks to your arrangement can transform your song. Step seven covers three different ways to arrange your song - genre & style, instrumentation & groove, and key changes. 

8. Let’s Compose A Song

The final step brings it all altogether and offers you guidelines for writing your song.


So, there you have it.

Do you have to know all this stuff to be a good songwriter?

Of course not! Many brilliant songwriters simply use their ears and they write according to what sounds good to them. That's fair enough, there’s nothing wrong with that at all.

But what I’ve tried to demonstrate is that with some basic notions of theory you’ll be much better equipped as a songwriter.

The tools of chords, scales, hooks, riffs and song structure will help push you in the right direction and help you know how to write a song. 

Finally, in case you've written songs before but have been experiencing writer's block, here are 25 ways to break free... 

Ged is Founder and Editor-in-chief at Zing Instruments. He’s a guitarist for London based gypsy jazz band ‘Django Mango’ and a lover of all things music. When he’s not ripping up and down the fretboard, he’s tinkering with his ’79 Campervan.

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